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multilayer anti reflection coating

Among the different constrains to fabricate high efficiency PEDO:PSS/n-Si heterojunction solar cells, the reflection of the incident light by the surface of solar cell is a key source of losses for photovoltaic conversion as Si surface reflects more than 30% as well as PEDOT:PSS on Si substrate reflects ~20% of the incoming light [10, 16]. The Fresnel coefficient, Wi, is determined when each layer material and a glass substrate have been selected. The ARCs layer design has been optimized using SiO2, MgF2, Nafion, MoOx, TiO2 and SrTiO3 layers to minimize the reflection for wavelength in the range of 300–1200 nm. This approach greatly facilitates the use of a low cost and easily obtainable material like soda lime glass for the monitor while still permitting a precision thickness control of the respective layers with an optical monitoring method. The anti-reflection coatings of embodiments 7-9 are produced in the same manner as in embodiments 1-6. Solution-processed materials with low (L) refractive indices (1.2–1.4) such as MgF2, Nafion and SiO2 can be used to minimize the reflectance loss over a broadband spectral wavelength [21, 40, 41]. The invention of claim 5 wherein the substrate is a glass having an index of refraction in the range of 1.4 to 1.9. Therefore, a circle located at point C in its center with a radius related to W4 and another circle located at origin 0 in its center with a radius related to the W5 are drawn. The samples for the measurement of thickness and reflectance of PEDOT:PSS polymer were prepared on one side polished CZ crystalline n-type silicon substrates with thickness and resistivity of 300 μm and 0.1–0.3 Ωcm, respectively. (a) The chemical structure of PEDOT:PSS, (b) The schematic diagram of the PEDOT:PSS/c-Si heterojunction solar cell and (c) The schematic energy diagram of the PEDOT:PSS/c-Si solar cell. However, these ARC layers reported in the previous studies require high temperature and high vacuum deposition technologies. Referring to FIG. Therefore, the deposition of multilayer antireflection coatings (MARCs) on solar cell with flat silicon substrate seems to be a good solution to further reduction of optical losses as well as avoiding defects for achieving higher photovoltaic performance of the solar cells. Thus, accurate control of the optical thickness of the fourth layer is particularly difficult with the optical monitoring method. The conductive PEDOT:PSS polymer comprises two ionomers. This results in a decrease in durability as demonstrated by a standard adhesion test which is performed by abrading the coating with a stream of fine silicon carbide particles dropped from a known height. The first layer I is made of a material having a low index of refraction in the range of 1.35 to 1.62, such as MgF2, SiO2, LaF2, and Na2 (AlF4), and is approximately 0.25 λo in optical thickness with respect to a design wavelength, λo. Nos. The measured reflectance spectra of PEDOT:PSS and simulated reflectance spectra as a function of wavelength of the double ARC layers for PEDOT:PSS/c-Si solar cell are shown in figure 3(b). Referring to FIG. A multi-layered anti-reflection coating as in claim 1 wherein the second and fourth layers are selected from a group consisting of ZrO, 4. The efficiency of this type of c-Si/organic heterojunction solar cells has already reached to 13%–20% [7–14]. This condition can be expressed mathematically by equation [22], where, nARC is the refractive index of the thin-film ARC layer [36]. Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, Saitama 338-8570, Japan, Jaker Hossain https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7167-8634, Received 3 October 2019 Figure 2. In order to act a single layer as an ARC layer to obtain net zero reflection in the spectral range of 300–1200 nm, the amplitudes of the reflected waves at the air-ARC interface and ARC-substrate interface have to be identical and precisely one-half wave (180°) out of phase, resulting in destructive interference. The invention of claim 20 wherein the refractive indices are as follows: 22. Published by IOP Publishing Ltd, "Gleb Wataghin" Institute of Physics – University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Professor Position (Tenure Track) in Experimental Quantum Materials Research, Scientific Data Management Project Coordinator. The reference wavelength for the calculation of the thickness of the layer has been considered as λo = 650 nm. Figure 5(a) shows the cross section of the MARCs layer design for the PEDOT:PSS/c-Si heterojunction solar cell. The thickness of PEDOT:PSS thin films deposited on c-Si was measured by Dektak-150 thickness profilometer and the reflectance of flat silicon and PEDOT:PSS on flat silicon was measured by Shimadzu UV–vis spectrophotometer (UV-2600 Shimadzu). The invention of claim 8 wherein the optical thickness, N. 10. The third layer adjacent the glass substrate is of Al2 O3 or MgO (N=1.64 to 1.72) with an optical thickness of λo/2. Jaker Hossain1, Bipanko Kumar Mondal1, Shaikh Khaled Mostaque1, Sheikh Rashel Al Ahmed2 and Hajime Shirai3, Published 9 December 2019 • However, in this work, as PEDOT:PSS does not follow the design condition of AR coating, materials with low and high refractive indices have been placed at different positions with an overall optical thickness of λ/4 or λ/2 to optimize the reflectance spectra for PEDOT:PSS/c-Si heterojunction solar cells. If the coating is a quarter wavelength thickness and the coating has an index of refraction less that the glass it is coating then the two reflections are 180 degrees out of phase. 1. Recently, an efficiency of 26.33% for the c-Si solar cell using back contact device structure with a practical module of 180 cm2 has been reported [2]. The invention of claim 18 wherein the optical thickness, N. 20. The colors used are to distinguish the layers, but not otherwise significant. The intersecting point of these two circles is labeled G, and vectors CG and GO are depicted.

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